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Street Bump is an Andriod app created with funding from Boston City council to automatically detect cracks and other damage in roads while they're driven over.
Street Bump works by monitoring three accelerometers, as well as GPS, bearing and time. These are uploaded to the Street Bump website where a competition will soon be underway to convert the collected data into information about the state of Boston's roads.
There is a bounty on improving and developing the app as well as creating formulae to help transform the gathered data. 
The data collection and uploading was created prior to February 2011, with the app available to download and collecting data since that point. 
Boston itself has a history of promoting innovative solutions and a focus on non-car technology. 
Bump - NewUrbanMechanics.org